How are Loyalty Programs and Campaigns driving Sales for Restaurants

Technology is making our lives simpler and more convenient in every way. Businesses across sectors, whether online or brick & mortar, are increasingly turning to digital technology to become more efficient. The Restaurant industry is no different. 

Among various technology solutions available, personalised loyalty programs and targeted marketing campaigns are the most effective tools to gather a huge paying customer base, which is also loyal to your brand.

According to a study on the ‘Global Food and Beverage Market’ by Cushman and Wakefield, the Asia Pacific region is the fastest-growing when it comes to spending on dining out. The average annual growth rate is estimated at 7.5% during the period 2017-27.

How is technology helping you to keep your customers hooked?

Your restaurant has great food, and your diners love you, but what can you do to build a special relationship with your diners? Make your diners feel special on their every visit, and every time they want to dine out, they will think of you. Loyalty programs can help you do that effortlessly.

You need to understand your customers’ patterns and shower them with offers. And, this does not mean that running offers will lead you to losses. On the contrary, it is the perfect strategy to gain profits.

There are customers who visit your restaurant at least two times a week. Some visit less often, but whenever they do, they like to spend a hefty amount. There are also customers who have a favorite from the menu and order it on their every visit. 

With Loyalty programs, you can recognise such customer behaviour, categorize them into segments, and create programs tailored to their preferences. 

There is nothing like a good loyalty program that can keep the diners hooked to your restaurant.

There is more you can do with it-

  • Provides you a choice between point-based and instant discount based programs. Restaurants have total control over the entire process, including the rewards to be given.
  • Creates a reward program on billing value and frequency of visits.
  • Enables effective and hassle-free customer interactions.

According to the Restaurant Success Report of 2019, 64% of guests look for loyalty programs while dining out. Among them, 50% of customers say that loyalty programs – and the rewards they offer – are important factors in picking the restaurant they choose to visit.

 

Spread the Word and Reach Out to your Customers

You have created the most effective loyalty programs for your customer base, but how will your customers know that amazing offers are awaiting them at your restaurant?

Of course, you can hand them gift cards when they visit you, but you can reach a larger audience by making use of technology.

Campaigns‘ is a tool that enables you to periodically reach out to your target customers. Messages and Emails that contain offers and experiences tailored to their individual preferences create compelling reasons for them to come back – effectively driving up the frequency of customer visits to the restaurant.

People often reach out to their phones whenever they have to choose a place of dining. Their smartphone becomes their best friend. When you send them personalised campaigns that contain offers, discounts, and experiences that your restaurant will provide them, your restaurant gets noticed, and there is a more likely chance that they visit you.

There is more to it-

  • Imports customer data to set-up personalised campaigns. 
  • Automates the process of targeting the customer base through text messages and emails. 
  • Performs exhaustive analytics to assess campaign performance and suggest course corrections as and when required. 

About 50% of the recipients find automated email services helpful, as per the Restaurant Success Report of 2019. The importance of this tool cannot be overstated, as it can significantly increase a restaurant’s acquisition and retention rates. 

Loyalty programs and marketing campaigns have proved to be a powerful tool in retaining a loyal customer base. Adopt these technology solutions in your restaurant and see for yourself. There will be a lot of familiar and happy faces you are going to see often! 

How to win your customers’ hearts this Valentines Day

Did you know restaurants rank Valentine’s Day as the second busiest day of the year? 

According to the Retail Advertising and Marketing Association, consumers spend about $13.19 billion on Valentine’s Day, enough to afford all the travel plans every person made after watching ‘Yeh Jawani hai Deewani’.

A restaurant is a place where love stories begin and moments of love brew. The place where he first proposed, their first date after their wedding, her first blind date, or be it funny date arranged by parents, a restaurant always plays an essential part in creating beautiful love memories. It is a part of every proposal story they will tell their friends.

Everyone knows one cannot choose their family, but they can choose their partner. As much as love can make you go WTF, there’s no denying we’d all be a little less rich without love in life!

Here’s how you can make their merry moments merrier:

1. Valentine’s day demands ‘The Food of Love.’ 

 

There is nothing like too much red on Valentine’s day, so spice up your food menu with Red velvet pastries, heart-shaped cookies, and cute love themed cupcakes.

Create unique combos and Platters, like a beer combo with some chicken finger food, a bottle of champagne with a bouquet of flowers, and heart-shaped chocolates.

Let’s give the couples more time engaging in intimate moments and less time picking various items from the menu.

Your diners must be aware beforehand that a Valentine’s Day special food menu awaits them so that they can pick the right venue for the day. So spread the word by sending them an email and SMS campaigns.

2. Run Hatke Offers

  • Send personalised cards at your diners’ tables, which might go something like, “You both look adorable together! Have a nice evening.” The card or a scroll(if you want to do it the cupid’s way) can be designed in love-themed templates like this cupid one or even the classic heart-shaped ones.

  • Collaborate with a photographer and capture their special moments, which they can cherish for life. You must post these pictures on your social channels and get all the people talking about your restaurant. 

Along with that, the efforts put in the decor, the food, and the setting must be captured and put across the web- on dineout stories and Instagram stories so that new customers searching for a restaurant on the web so that new customers can also get aware of the ongoing events at your restaurant.

You can create the most desirable romantic date fantasies for people watching your restaurant’s stories and pictures on the web. 

Send personalised messages to your customers so that they remember you while deciding a place for their special evening. Here’s how

3. Organize fun activities

 

  • Collaborate with a band or an artist for live music to set the mood at your restaurant. Music can make or break the mood. Romantic music such that your diners are drooling in love, and there is euphoria! 

Artists like Prateek Kuhad, Hari & Sukhmani, and bands like Agni are just some of the top picks when it comes to setting a romantic mood with some music.

  • Salsa night: There is no bond like the one you make with a partner on the dance floor. You can call professional salsa dancers and get all the people grooving on the dance floor. Singles also get a chance to mingle with new people and dance their hearts out!

4. Plan a Singles’ day out

 

If you thought just calling out couples on Valentine’s day is a hit plan for your restaurant, you are wrong! Shout out to all the singles out there and organize a party.

  • The golden rule of the party: Couple entries strictly not allowed!
  • Decorate your restaurants with funny quotes or memes for single people. When love life’s DOA, memes are your best friends.
  • Let the ‘We hate couples’ club and ‘I can’t ever get out of the friend zone’ be your guest for the day. 
  • Organize a comedy stand up or screen shows like ‘Haq Se Single’ by Zakir khan at your restaurant to hype the mood.

With social media, SMS, and email campaigns, you can create a very quirky campaign with memes and quotes that will catch your target audience’s eye. 

5. Dress code Party

  • There can be a simple dress code party planned where you invite your diners, saying they must wear red and black.
  • Or you can add a funky touch and make it interesting by asking your diners to come dress as a famous couple. It can be a classic Raj & Simran couple, Anjali and Rahul from Kuch Kuch Hota hai, or the very sensual Ram Leela.
  • A vampire couple or greek mythology inspired couple, basically tell them to be as weird and quirky as they can. And you can reward the best dressed with a free meal! 

 

It’s always exciting for couples to play dress up, and you can add spice to their lives with different themes like this. Make it engaging for them by making them act like the couple they have come dressed as or make them dance on Bollywood songs, and they will remember you as their best host! 

So get started on those Valentine’s day preps, and select ideas that you think will be a hit for your restaurant. Aren’t you already excited for D day?

You can get creative and wild with your ideas and put up a great show, but it is not good enough unless your customers know about it. Running Campaigns is, therefore, your key to create a buzz amongst your audience and make your show a hit! 

Let us help you do that. You can get in touch – Contact us: http://inresto.com/contact.html

The Restaurant Affair- Hyderabad Chapter

Introduction

The Restaurant Affair is an interactive summit that talks about the business of tomorrow. It is a unique offline forum to educate, engage, and promote the adoption of technology within the F&B industry. Whether it’s a small restaurant chain or an established eatery, every restaurant is upping its game to strive in the competition, and ‘The Restaurant Affair’ helps every restaurateur to achieve that and network with fellow folks of the industry.

 

The Hyderabad Chapter was held at Novotel HICC on 21st January. Food industry experts and leaders shared their radical views on the ongoing technology trends that are helping the industry boom and making it more than merely about food and cooking.

 

Speaking on the occasion, Mr. Ankit Mehrotra, CEO & Co-founder, Dineout said, 

“The restaurant industry is very fragmented and largely unorganized, for which the adoption of technology is a necessity in this digital era. With ‘The Restaurant Affair,’ we want to change the way restaurants function in India and help showcase the technological prowess of our products. We’re loving the response and the increasing participation of restaurants who believe in our mission and stand together with us.” 

Panel Discussion

The panel was graced by Hyderabad’s restaurant industry stalwarts- Chef Chalapati Rao- Simply South, Mr. Manish Dayya- Novotel HICC, Mr. Prosenjit Roy Choudhury- Absolute barbecues, Mr. Viren Shah- CreamStone ice creams.

Our Co-founder Ankit Mehrotra, led the panel discussion and asked the esteemed panelists intriguing questions. The discussion was mind-boggling and educated our audience on how they can manage a restaurant successfully. Experience teaches you more than any book written ever, and hence we tried to gather all the Gyan that our panelists had to offer, who have been in this game for quite some time now. 

Dineout’s Journey

Mr. Vivek Kapoor, our Cofounder, took the audience through an inspiring journey. From being just a discovery and reservations platform to being a restaurant enabler, how dineout has come a long way. 

He took us through the Dineout product suite, which helps empower restaurants & enable growth.

Game Changer 2020

Our Co-founder, Vijayan Parthasarathy, took the stage to shed light on the technology solution that is the game-changer for the restaurant industry in 2020 – Valetresolves all the parking woes at your restaurant!  

Technology Workshops

There was a guided tour of various technology solutions for our audience. The live demos helped restaurateurs understand how they can streamline and manage their restaurant’s operations effortlessly. They had the first-hand experience with the latest technology solutions.

 

If you missed being a part of the event or happened to miss this session, you can experience our entire product suite here

 

Casual conversations brewed new connections & we bonded over food & wine.

If you are enticed to be a part of a restaurant affair like this, let us know at info@dineout.co.in so that we can meet you while we’re on the road. The next destination of our tour is Kolkata, and we can’t wait to meet the chefs & restaurateurs of the city, which is every foodie’s must-visit destination.

 

You sure don’t want to miss out on opportunities to network with restaurant peers, sneak peeks at the latest industry technology, and lots of time- and money-saving tips for your restaurant. See you in your city!

 

The Restaurant Chronicles | GIRF 2020 is live | Kitchens that Fly High and more

How Cloud kitchens are leveraging technology to increase profits and delight customers?

For the past few years, the restaurant industry has been quite experimental in terms of technology and has witnessed favorable growth. New technological innovations are sliding every day and creating a buzz in the market. 

 

Technology is the backbone for restaurants that accept incoming orders only through online ordering systems. Commonly known as cloud kitchens, they have a base kitchen that delivers food to the customers with no dine-in facility. At any given point, a cloud kitchen uses at least 5 to 6 varied tech products, including Point of sale systems (POS), CRM, Loyalty, Campaigns, and more. All technology platforms give out data but are not interlinked. Managing a variety of technology solutions individually can be a little challenging.

 

Cloud kitchens operate for the benefit of the customers who just love App-based and easy ordering. They are discovered online through various mediums like Facebook, Web discovery, delivery aggregators, and more. With orders pouring in from multiple online platforms (Thanks to digital being so successful), it becomes virtually impossible to keep up. It requires more labour, more work hours, and eventually results in increased cost and overworked employees.

 

Now let’s understand a restaurant’s plight – A customer orders regularly; however, the restaurant has no history of billing, order channel, dining pattern, order preferences, etc. because somewhere the system falls short. It is difficult for the restaurant management to track all of the above manually. Restaurants, especially cloud kitchens, require integrated software that can streamline all the operations for them. 

 

Let’s paint a beautiful picture where all orders land directly into your POS dashboard, you can assign a delivery executive from the POS itself. Turning off all aggregator portals happens with a click without accessing each platform. Further to this, let’s erase the manual & tedious task of house operations, i.e., raw material requirement assessment, routing orders to suppliers, distribution of semi-prepared dishes from central kitchen to outlets, and more. Now let’s bring this picture to life because, with inresto POS, all of the above is possible.

Instead of dealing with multiple software vendors, cloud kitchens can use integrated software like the one inresto has, with all the restaurant management solutions at one place. This allows kitchens to focus on their core business without worrying about a stack of technological solutions. 

 

All frontend and backend operations such as managing online orders from different aggregators- (Zomato, Swiggy, & more); enabling menu changes, customised pricing, assigning delivery executives, raw material requirement inventory management, data analysis, and more can be controlled from a single dashboard. 

 

Statistics tell us that Inventory management is one of the biggest challenges that our Cloud kitchen partners have faced in the past. Space being a limitation, cloud kitchens can only store two to three days of stock, which makes it imperative to have optimum inventory to avoid negative impact amongst customers and wastage. With inresto’s SCM and POS integration, past sales can be analysed for trend recognition, which further enables our cloud kitchen partners to make stock and item exchange effortless.

 

Since the Amazon for Business integration into our SCM module, we have curated a marketplace with items listed at the best possible price. This enables our partner cloud kitchens and restaurants to access quality and affordable raw materials. More perks being- timely deliveries and the option to convert payments into EMIs.

 

Everything is jargon unless backed by data – Our cloud kitchen partner, and fitness-focused cloud kitchen chain has witnessed a 9% reduction in cost and over 120-man hour decrease. Another leading cloud kitchen in India started by using our Tech at one of their outlets now seamlessly bringing that number to 50+

 

Over 70% of the restaurants are turning to technology. Make your switch today!

 

Ways You can Control Noise in Your Restaurant

Most of us have, at some point in our lives, had an unpleasant dine-out experience, just because the restaurant in question was unpleasantly noisy. Statistically, ‘excessive noise levels’ is among the top three most common customer complaints that most of the restaurants face. 

Whether it’s the annoying hum and whirr of kitchen machinery, the clanking of cutlery, loud co-diners, or a particularly whiny kid, or even unpleasantly loud music, these noises can get on your customers’ nerve, disrupt important conversations, kill magical moments of intimacy, and effectively destroy what your diners anticipated to be a pleasant evening out. 

It can lead to customers walking out, never coming back, criticizing your restaurant on public fora, and spreading bad word of mouth, tangibly hurting your business. 

Here are a few steps that you, as a restaurant manager/owner, can adopt to address the issue, effectively: 

1. Interior Design Solutions

  • Keep noisy kitchen machinery and frequently used equipment – blenders, grinders, ice machines, and such far from the dining area. 
  • Use cork-lined sound-proof kitchen doors to prevent the kitchen noises like the clanging of pots & pans and conversations of the chefs from going out in the dining area. 
  • Add carpets, drapes and curtains, cushions and upholstery and other sound-absorbent soft furnishings all over the restaurant, to muffle and minimize discordant outside noises. 
  • Use rubber caps at the bottom of the chairs, table, and sofa legs, to eliminate the sound of furniture scraping against the floor. 
  • Incorporate separate booths and cubicles for couples and groups who are seeking to enjoy a romantic or intimate meal. 
  • Indoor plants like Ferns, Peace Lilies, and Baby’s Tears are good natural sound absorbents that can not only reduce noise by 6-15 decibels but also add to the aesthetics of your restaurant and improve indoor air quality. A healthy environment always feels pleasant.

2. Psychological Solutions 

 

  • An intimate setting with dim lighting and soft music are the most preferred choices for date nights and intimate gatherings. When the vibe is pleasant, the diners go with the flow and it is less likely that they deviate from it. Also, Reservation apps make it easier for you to give every diner their preferred table or section at the restaurant.
  • A Formally dressed staff that engages with the customers politely, subtly encourages the diners to hold pleasant conversations amongst themselves as well.

3. Infrastructural and Human Resource Solutions

  • Train hostesses and ushers to seat customers accompanied by kids at a designated area within the restaurant – ideally one that is subtly isolated from the rest of the crowd.
  • Some child-friendly eateries have designated kids’ zones with toys, games and trained waiters to keep the little ones occupied & fed while they play. In this way, the parents and other diners can also enjoy their dine out moments without any disturbances. 
  • If your restaurant serves alcoholic beverages, you can train your waiting staff to take subtle measures to turn down repeat orders and firmly discourage or refuse repeat orders to tipsy customers, to prevent them from turning raucous and unruly.

 

Make Every Customer your Restaurant’s Brand Ambassador

It is always larger than life experience for the customers when you grant them good experiences other than just good food. Hence it is necessary to ensure that every customer has, not just a pleasant but delightful dine-out experience, every time they visit you. You can monitor where your restaurant stands in terms of diner experience through feedback apps.

This keeps your restaurant in the limelight despite the increasingly competitive environment. Your first-time customers would be repeat customers, which will eventually become your regular patrons, and then the active brand advocates who spontaneously recommend your restaurant to every next person they meet.

The Restaurant Affair- Bengaluru Chapter

Introduction

The Restaurant Affair is a series of events for restaurateurs to get updated on the notable insights and ongoing trends that are shaping the restaurants of today.

The Restaurant Affair- Bengaluru Chapter was the first edition where about 100-150 Restaurateurs and Industry icons of restaurants and chains like Vapour Pub and Brewery, Theobroma, TOIT, Byg Brewski Brewing Company, Conrad, and more of the likes gathered. It was an opportunity for restaurateurs to reconnect with their industry folks and meet new ones.

Here’s what happened:

1. Panel Discussion

When our panelists got to talking, secrets were spilled, and the audience was all ears. The restaurateurs were exposed to insights, and business ideas, no book or classroom lecture will tell you about yet! There were talks about how restaurant technology is changing the face of the industry and how the technology product suites like the one inresto has to offer, helped established restaurants and newbies make a mark.

2. Dineout’s journey

Among various restaurateurs’ stories, there was ours too! Our co-founder Mr. Vivek Kapoor took to the stage, and the audience was thrilled and inspired to hear the journey. From being just a reservation platform to being restaurant enablers, we have come a long way. 

The B2B arm of dineout – inresto aims at enabling restaurants to achieve maximum efficiency through the valet to valet, cost-effective, and plug & play product suite that has helped 10000+ restaurants boost their business, globally.

3. Technology Workshops

After being introduced to technology solutions and dynamic innovations, we took the restaurateurs through the working knowledge of the products. Our audience got to try their hands on the latest technology solutions. 

If you missed being a part of the event or happened to miss this session, you can experience our entire product suite here

We topped it all off with a happy hour of wine, dine, and unlimited conversations!

If you are enticed to be a part of a restaurant affair like this, let us know at info@dineout.co.in so that we can meet you while we’re on the road. We are city hopping, and our next destination is Hyderabad. We can’t wait to hear that city’s restaurant story! 

 

How to Choose the Right Restaurant Management Software

No matter what the size, scale and spread of your restaurant operations may be, the right set of restaurant management solutions is your most reliable source when it comes to both efficient management of operations and optimal planning for long-term growth and expansion.

Understanding the Complete Restaurant Management System

A complete restaurant management software is your solution to every possible challenge your restaurant faces in its day to day operational activities. Solutions that are developed and customized to fulfill the specific needs of the F&B Service industry. It lets you manage your restaurant without hassles, saves human effort and costs.

The complete restaurant management solution includes the following functional modules:

  • Point Of Sale 

    A Billing and settlement system that works across all conceivable payment modes.

  • Supply Chain Management (SCM)

     A tailored, ingredient-level solution for recipe and inventory management.

  • Digital Menu

    A digital ordering system that simplifies KOT management, and enables automated direct-to-chef orders through a smart Kitchen Display System or kitchen printer.

  • Reservations 

    A technology system that efficiently manages Table Bookings and walk-in Reservations.

  • Digital Feedback 

    Customer Feedback is taken on your smart device which stores all the customer data and also enables instant grievance redressal.

  • Customer Relationship and Loyalty Management 

    You can do targeted marketing by running customized campaigns and loyalty programs through an automated programmatic approach.

  • Reporting & Analytics

    There are relevant modules to analyse data for continuous cross-functional improvement.

  • Digital Presence 

    Developing an informative website and mobile app for your restaurant.

With the emergence of multiple restaurant management software-as-a-service based solutions, and a mushrooming of online software providers, the solution is now not only accessible and affordable to the smallest and newest players, but there is also a plethora of choices. Today’s cloud-hosted solutions cater to your restaurant’s every possible need. 

Criteria Of Selection

Considering we have a vast pool available to choose from, you might need a guide to select the best of the options. Here’s that:

1. Customizability 

It’s best if the software you choose can be tailored to suit your restaurant’s specific requirements. In some cases, open-source software allows for customization at a coding level.

2. Compatibility 

The solution has to be compatible with your restaurant’s legacy software, with other commonly-used software and with the hardware devices in your restaurant.

3. Scalability  

Choose a solution that seamlessly supports volume growth and geographic expansion, as well as the diversification of operational models within your business. You don’t want to keep changing your software as and when your restaurant expands. Remember, these software are meant for you to save costs and not raise them further.

4. Flexibility

A solution that allows you to pick and choose, add to or delete modules within the overall software package, based on stage-of-life-cycle needs, is the optimal solution. A smart software for you to make smart choices is what you need for your restaurant.

5. Usability 

When the customer interface is friendly, instinct-driven, and informative, it is easier to use, and you don’t waste too much time figuring out how to operate the system. 

6. Advanced Analytics 

When the solution tracks performance, provides insights and indicators, one can analyse and make continuous improvements and optimize operational performance.

A restaurant that is customer-friendly and has revenues flowing is every restaurateur’s dream and you don’t want to compromise on that. And you don’t have to! Now that we have created a guide for you to choose the correct solution which can make it happen, you don’t have to wait any further!

Ways to Go Green at your Restaurant: Make it an environment-friendly space

Don’t you think the world looks good in green? The restaurant industry definitely thinks so, and the last decade has witnessed some efforts by restaurants to go green. The movement has gathered steam, and ‘Go Green’ is fast becoming the new mantra. Some restaurants have even adopted eco-friendly themes as their principal USP.

The Indian Food Service industry will be worth Rs 6 lakh crore by 2022-23, with a CAGR of 9%. While the industry does much to sustain the growth impetus for the economy, in terms of its impact on the environment, it leaves much to be desired. 

Here are a few guidelines for restaurateurs who sense the winds of change, but remain unsure about how to get the ball rolling: 

1. Ethical sourcing

One of the best secrets to keep an eco-friendly environment lies in your own backyard. Grow your own or source organic foods and follow a strict farm to fork policy.

You must ensure that suppliers follow ethical crop production and animal welfare norms.

2. Ditch Paper, Log in with Technology

Cut down on paper usage. Living in the digital age and time, this can’t get any simpler

We know that the billing systems are all on your computers. Gone are the days when you had to sit at the counter writing bills on paper. 

Adopt digital Menus. This upcoming concept has been adopted by many restaurants- Lord of the drinks (First fiddle restaurants), Slay coffee and Pind Balluchi being a few examples. And guess what, you don’t even have to invest in a computer system or tablet. The diners can open the menu on their phones by just scanning a QR code and you can also cross-sell / up-sell, through these, easily.

3. Water conservation and efficiency

Recycle used water for cleaning and watering plants.

Fix leaky fixtures and install low-flow faucets in toilets and kitchens.

And the most simple way in which you can do your bit for water conservation is by joining NRAI’s initiative called #GlassHalfFull, which instructs the waiters to fill glasses half-full unless otherwise requested by customers.

4. Waste reduction and management

Invest in a tailored and analytics-based inventory management software that is smart enough to inform the management about the excess stock in inventory to maintain efficient inventories, particularly with perishables.

The advanced data analytics solutions in these software help the management to study consumption patterns and arrive at optimal serving solutions and portion sizes. 

Follow government guidelines in segregating and managing waste efficiently to minimize greenhouse gas emissions and reduce your carbon footprint.

And don’t forget to donate the leftover food to local shelters. 

5. Ditch plastics. Go eco-friendly.

Explore alternatives to plastic for packaging, straws, stirrers, bottles, tumblers, and cutlery. The alternatives could be bagasse packaging and cutlery made of wood – just like JustBe café in Bangalore. 

Use eco-friendly paper towels in bathrooms and kitchens.

Consider going back to our roots with banana leaf plates, clay tumblers, and papaya leaf straws.

6. Sustainable interior décor

Use furniture made of biodegradable wood, such as bamboo.

Buy organic cotton only from local sellers. 

Use all-cloth linen, such as tablecloths and napkins.

 

Remember, going eco-friendly is not just the right thing to do. It’s responsible, noble, and selfless. It can also pay-off tangibly. It helps you connect with your millennial customers over a shared cause, to earn their appreciation and repeat patronage. 

According to a recent green dining survey, a total of 65% of customers said that they are willing to pay 10% more to dine at an eco-friendly restaurant. 

Who thought being eco-friendly can result in hiked revenues too? You cannot not go green after reading this.